I. How does the kitchen layout involve a reasonable upper position and a scientific layout?
Reasonable kitchen layout design should follow the following design principles:
1. The layout of the kitchen should meet the needs of the established dishes.
2. Strictly grasp the principle of separation of raw and cooked food, and clean-up and diversion of sewage, to ensure kitchen food hygiene.
3. The production process is short and smooth, avoiding circuitous intersections, and shortening the transportation process as much as possible to make the path clear.
4. The functional areas of the kitchen are clear, both independent and communicating with each other, making it easy for chefs to perform their duties and cooperate with each other.
5. It has reasonable walking space for operators, which is convenient for chefs to work, and has a broad vision and convenient management.
6. The kitchen should be equipped with a good smoke exhaust system to ensure air circulation and no stuffy feeling, so that the chef has a comfortable working environment.
2. How to separate cold dishes? What is the suitable temperature for cold dishes?
The cold dish room is a place where the cold dish finished products are cut and packed. The preparation of cold dishes follows the "five specialties" system of "special staff, special rooms, special tools, and special refrigeration". At the entrance, there should be a pre-entry room for hand washing and disinfection facilities; an independent air-conditioning facility is installed in the cold basin room to maintain Cleanliness of indoor air; UV light germicidal lamps are installed, and copper pipes are used for the water source supply pipe to supply raw drinking water. In order to prevent breeding of mosquitoes and flies, the drainage system in the cold dish room should not be provided with open trenches, and the ground must be kept clean. The cold dish room can be separated by aluminum alloy glass partitions, and the dishes should be transmitted through the window. The suitable temperature of the cold dish room should be below 24 degrees Celsius. .
3. How to confirm whether the washing position is reasonable?
The setting of the dishwashing room should comply with the principle of cleansing and diverting, so that the tableware used in the restaurant or processing room can be conveniently sent to the butterfly room for cleaning and return to use. In addition, the location and facilities of the washroom should also handle the storage and transportation of waste, pollutants and other garbage. In the process of washing and disinfecting, on the one hand, tableware enters, and on the other hand, clean tableware is sent out. Therefore, the clean and dirty flow lines have clear shunts, and the position without roundabout crossing is reasonable. Otherwise, it is unreasonable.
4. How should the roughing room and operation room be separated? What is the appropriate temperature in the operating room?
The rough processing room is a place where raw materials such as fruits, vegetables, aquatic products, poultry, and meat are processed into preliminary semi-finished products. The procedure in the roughing room should be from dirty to dirty, so special attention should be paid to the cleanliness dividing line and avoiding the reverse flow of cleanliness after processing. The transportation route of a large amount of waste generated during the work must not be confused with the clean logistics line. As aquatic products and poultry are susceptible to bacterial infections, it is best to separate them from rough processing of vegetables. That is, a food processing room and a vegetable food processing room are set up.
The operating room is a process of weighing, washing, cutting and garnishing the various non-staple raw materials after rough processing according to the needs of the dish or cold cooking. The raw food semi-finished products to be further processed are sent to the hot stove for processing into finished products.
Roughing room and operation room are set up separately. The production flow from raw materials to finished products should be short and smooth, without roundabout crossing. The rough processing room and the operation room are places with a large amount of drainage. When open trench drainage is adopted, it is easy to clean and unblock. Oily drainage should be set separately from other drainage systems, and oil isolation facilities should be installed. The appropriate temperature in the operation room should be below 26 degrees.
5. How to adopt effective sound insulation, heat insulation and taste isolation measures between the kitchen and the restaurant?
There should be a certain buffer space between the kitchen and the dining room. Generally, the preparation room is used as a transition space. Two-way spring doors can be set up; the screens can be served; corner entrances and other methods can effectively solve the problems of sound insulation, heat insulation, and taste isolation. It also prevents the dining guests from seeing the kitchen. The reasonable design of the exhaust air volume can absorb a lot of heat generated by the kitchen stove in time to the oil fume, ensure that the air circulation in the kitchen does not have a stuffy feeling, and make the chef have a comfortable working environment. There should be a certain negative pressure value in the kitchen, so that the oil fume and odor generated by the kitchen will not escape to the restaurant to achieve the effect of heat insulation and taste isolation.
6. How to adopt effective ventilation and exhaust measures in the kitchen and stove?
The ventilation and exhaust system in the kitchen includes fume hoods (oil mesh hoods, water-fed hoods), exhaust fans (centrifugal fans, axial fans, etc.), fume exhaust ducts, fresh air ducts, and air conditioning systems. Effective ventilation and exhaust must meet the following standards:
1. The ventilation volume of the mechanical ventilation in the thermal processing room of the kitchen and food preparation room should be calculated by thermal balance. 65% of the calculated exhaust volume is discharged through the exhaust hood. 35% is exhausted from the full ventilation of the room; generally, 40 ventilations per hour are appropriate.
2. The suction speed of the exhaust hood mouth should generally not be less than 0.5 m / s, and the speed in the exhaust pipe should not be more than 10 m / s;
3. The hot air processing room of the kitchen and catering room should be about 70% of the exhaust air volume, and the negative pressure of the room should not be greater than 5 Pa, so that the oil fume and odor generated in the kitchen will not escape to the restaurant. In order to achieve the effect of heat insulation and taste.
7. Why should the kitchen and dining room (including banquet hall) be on the same floor?
The kitchen and restaurant are on the same floor, which can shorten the conveying process, improve work efficiency, help maintain the temperature of dishes, prevent cross-contamination, and reduce equipment investment. If the kitchen and the dining room are not on the same floor, a separate food ladder should be set up, and care should be taken to separate the raw, cooked, clean, dirty and separated food. In addition, heat transfer equipment should be added.